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Atomic Physics

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1. Historical perspective

Mendeleev and the Periodic Table

Avogadros hypothesis: particles

Thomson's experiment and the discovery of the electron

Millikan's experiment and the quantization of charge

Rutherfords atomic model

2. Spectroscopy

Fraunhofer, Kirchhoff and the old spectroscopy

Balmer's discovery

Rydberg series and the Rydberg constant

3. The Bohr model of the atom

Bohr's assumptions

Extension of the Bohr-model

Explanation of characteristic X-rays in the Bohr-model

4. The Schrodinger equation of the hydrogen atom

Basic steps in solving the wave equation

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Separation of the time coordinate

Transformation to the centre-of-mass; reduced mass

Sperical coordinates

Separtion of variables; three quantum numbers

Energy levels and spectrum

Wave functions

Expectation values

Parity

Probability distributions:electron clouds

Intensity: expectation value of dipole operator

Selection rules

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Relativistic effects

Quantum electrodynamics effects and the Lamb shift

Hyperfine structure

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6. Magnetic effects in atoms and the electron spin

The Zeeman effect

Magnetic effects and quantum mechanics

Theory of the normal Zeeman effect

Necessity for introducing another quantum number

Addition of angular momenta L and S

Spin-orbit interaction

Spin-orbit interaction and the relativistic correction

Zeeman effect for coupled angular momenta

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Paschen-Back limit

Lande factor

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Hyperfine effects of magnetic coupling

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7. Many electron atoms

Introduction

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Binding in helium; a simplifed picture

The central field approximation

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Slaters rules

The self-consistent field method

The aufbau principle and the Periodic system

The problem of indistinguishable electrons

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Pauli exclusion priciple

Ortho- and parahelium

The alkali atoms

Various strengths of the electrostatic and spin-orbit interactions

Hund's rules

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8. Energy levels in molecules; the quantum structure

The Born-Oppenheimer approximation

Potential energy curves

Rotational motion in a diatomic molecule

The rigid rotor

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Vibrational motion in a non-rotating diatomic molecule

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Anharmonicity on the vibrational motion

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Energy levels in a diatomic molecule: electronic, vibrational and rotational

Last change: 8 February 2001